やまのこ保育園

惑星のようす

"節分プロジェクト2020"

2020.03.09
Setsubun Project 2020
節分プロジェクト2020

今年の節分も、昨年同様「異界からのお客さん」「何かよくわからない者」が訪れました。やまのこの節分は、「節分と言えば鬼→鬼は悪者→豆をぶつけて退治せよ」というよくある三拍子の再現でなく、「異界という存在に出会う機会」として、昨年職員全体で考えて作った経緯があります。今年は職員だけでなく、山伏でもあり、文化人類学者でもある成瀬正憲さんに事前にお話を伺い、日本の伝統芸能における季節の変わり目に行われて来た祭事の特徴や、時期を定めて年に1度どこからかやってくる来訪神の考え方なども教えていただきながら、昨年の節分を進化させたような節分となりました。

 

Followed by last year’s first Setsubun (節分, or traditional day before beginning of spring), “Guests from the Other World”, or “Mysterious Unknowns” returned to Yamanoko this year. Our way of Setsubun rituals had never been the reenactment of the simple, well-known “setsubun which isthe time where demons (鬼, pronounced oni) come →demons are bad guys →so we throw beans and defeat them!”. But rather, it has been the whole Yamanoko team’s creation of opportunity for children to encounter the existence from the other world. This time around, we decided to seek from advice by Masanori Naruse, a Yamabushi (山伏, or mountain priest) / a cultural anthropologist. Mr. Naruse’s lecture on features of traditional seasonal rituals that had been taking place between each season, and concepts of raiho-shin (来訪神, or joy-bringing spirit from the divine realms) greatly contributed in developing this year’s Setsubun from the one last year.


当日に向けて ー 来るのは誰? Preparation -so who is visiting us?


節分が近づく中、各クラス、節分の話が出ていたようです。「鬼」という言葉を使うか否か迷う保育者もいました。「来るのは鬼?いや、鬼じゃなくて『何かよくわからない者』だけど…どう子どもたちにオリエンテーションしたらいいかな?」と職員間で話が交わされています。子どもたちからは「前は赤い顔のお客さん来たんだよね、今回はどうかな」と「節分=鬼=退治」という概念に収まらないやりとりも聞かれましたが、去年の節分を経験していない子は「ぼくは鬼がきたらこうやって戦ってやっつけてやるんだ!」と戦いを挑む構えを見せていた5歳児もいました。
3歳以上になると、絵本や歌や聞き伝えで「節分=鬼=退治」という概念をもっている子どもたちが多い中(大人もですね)、「今年の節分は一体何が起きるんだ?」「来るのは誰なんだ?」と、確かなのは<誰かが訪れる>ということだけで、その訪れる者を指し示す言葉を大人も子どもも誰も持ちあわせていないという、興味深いやりとりがあちらこちらで見られました。
ここで大切になってくるのは、職員間のイメージの共有です。訪れるのは〇〇です。と誰も言えない、訪れる者を表す言葉すらないような”固まらない状況”の中で、共に場を作るためのイメージ共有。一斉メールと職員会議で事前に以下が共有されました。

 

As the day got closer, it seemed that each class had conversations on this year’s Setsubun. There were a few class staffs who were wondering whether they should use the word “(demons)” to describe or not. “So are demons visiting us? I mean, they aren’t demons so I guess ‘mysterious unknowns’? How shall we introduce to children?” Such conversations were heard quite often. From children’s side, on one hand it looked like some already were not bound to the typical “setsubun =demons =defeat”, saying “last year I remember this guest with a red mask came. What about this year?”, but there were 5 year olds who did not experience setsubun at Yamanoko last year, all ready to fight the demons (“this is how I’m attacking them when they come!”).
While many of the 3 year olds and older (including us adults) seemed to already have the idea of typical setsubun learned through picture books, fairy tales and songs, it was fascinating to hear conversations such as “what’s happening this year?” “who will visit us?”; none of us adults or children knew exactly how to define the existence -the only fact we were aware of was that somebody, or something is coming for sure. At this stage having mutual understanding by the whole team becomes crucial. Under such unconcrete circumstances where nobody could state with confidence “XX is coming” as there was not a word to describe it, we all had to be aware of what exactly we are creating. And so, below notions were shared and explained on email, and also at the team meeting a few days in advance.

 

  • 今年の節分も、異界と出会う機会として、よくわからない者が訪れます。
  • よくわからない者は、敢えてこわがらせるようなことはしない(見慣れない不明な存在自体に怖がる子もいるとは思うが)。
    神には常在神と来訪神の2種あるそうで、今回のは来訪神的なもの。ただどこからか時を定めてやってきて、どこかへ去って行く。
  • 今年は2者で行うことになり、漫才の元々の形でもある「予祝(よしゅく)」の要素を取り入れる(日本の芸能の重要な要素で、家々を訪れ、漫才で祝い、去って行く)。
    祝うとは、自分たちにとって肯定的なものを感じさせてくれる、生きていることを肯定されている感じを与えるもの。
  • 昔の「冬祭り」的なもの。冬祭りは、かつて冬の終わりの大晦日的な存在で、翌日には春祭りがあったという。太陽の日照時間が少なく、植物も枯れ、生命のテリトリーが一番狭くなる冬。
    そこで、山から降りて来た翁と嫗が、山の精霊が暴れるのをしずめ、植物の若芽を撒くなど、生のテリトリーが再び息吹くための行為を行ったという。翌日が立春である節分も「冬祭り」のような役割を持つ。

 

  • For Setsubun this year, mysterious unknown will visit again to provide us with opportunity to encounter the other world.
  • The mysterious unknown will not scare us on purpose (but children may become afraid of the unknown existence itself). According to traditional Japanese performing arts  (which Mr.Naruse is specialised in) there are two types of gods; jozai-shin (常在神 or indigenous gods) and raiho-shin (visitor gods), and this time we will welcome the latter, who will come and leave when the time comes.
  • This year we will have two visitors and will incorporate elements of “yoshuku” (予祝 or advanced celebration); an important element in traditional Japanese performing arts in which performers visit houses to houses to perform manzai, or Japanese stand-up comedy show, and leave.
    In this certain context, celebration is about affirming our existence and making us feel living life is valid and is an act of optimism.
  • It will be something similar to traditional “winter festival” back in ancient times. Just like new year’s eve, the end of winter season, the day after winter festival was spring festival. Less sunlight during the day, dying trees and plants -the territory of life becomes the most limited during winter. It is said in the folklore that writes about winter festival, that an old man and an old woman came down from the mountains one winter day, and practised rites to calm the mountain spirits and revive the nature by sowing seeds. Setsubun, the day in which is before risshun (立春 or first day of spring) is supposed to have similar role to this.

 

このようなイメージが共有され、子どもたちと離れたところでは、異界を表現するための準備が進められました。異界を表現する品々(仮面、藁でできた被り物、蓑のような羽織り物、音を奏す鳴り物、常緑樹の枝など)が持ち寄られました。

After the above became mutual recognition by the whole team, the preparation started to take place, away from children’s eyes. Items that represent the other world (a tribal mask, a headgear made out of straw, a coat made out of wood skin, musical instruments, evergreen branches and etc.) were brought by the team members and Naruse san.

 

 


そして当日 ー 園庭からやってきた言葉のない来訪者   
On the day – Silent visitors – came in from the garden

目の前にいるのは明らかなのに、何者かがわからない。わからない者への好奇心と畏れ。保育者に抱きついて泣く姿も、キョトンとした顔をして近くに寄ってくる姿も見られました。また、顔を背けつつ、チラッ、チラッと視線だけ再度向ける子や、「ほら、手が人間だから、これはヒトだよ!きっとヒトがこういう服を着てるだけ」と、人間であると自分自身に言い聞かせるかのような声も聞かれました。園庭から玄関を通って園舎に入ってくるときには、「入っていいよ。だけど靴を脱いでね」と声がけする6歳児。舞を見て「あの藁の帽子の方の人はなんか子どもみたい」と推理する声。不思議なことに豆を手にしながらも投げる姿はありません。そして来訪者が常緑樹の葉を撒き落としながら去っていくときには、「お豆あげるからまだ帰らないで」と豆を手渡しする姿もありました。

手に鳴り物を持った来訪者は、音を纏っていましたが、言葉は一言もありません。言葉のない世界。だからこそ掻き立てられる想像力と探究心。指し示す言葉のない「何かわからない訪問者」が目の前に現れたとき、子どもたちは自ら、その存在との内的な交信を始め、自分自身で探り、連なるように問いを立て、そして、その問いから次の行為を生んで行動していきました。訪問者もその子どもの行為に導かれるように舞い、相互に共鳴しながらその場が生成されていきました。

 

Their presence is undeniable, yet their identity is undeniably unclear. ; with the fear and curiosity toward the unknown ,some children clinged onto adults and cried, while others looked startled and came closer. Some, while turning their faces away from the “guests”, kept on glancing at them. We also heard some say “Look, they have hands like humans. They must be humans! It’s just they are wearing this kind of costumes!”, trying to tell himself that they are humans and there is nothing to be afraid of. When the “guests” entered the facility from the garden through the entrance, one 6 year old said “Yes you may enter. But please take off your shoes”. When the “guests” danced, another child made a remark, “That one with a straw hat, he looks like a child”. Strangely enough, there was not a single child who threw beans at them, although all of them had some in their palms. When the “guests” left Yamanoko, dancing away as they dropped evergreen leaves, some children even went after them calling out “Don’t go home yet! Here, take some beans”, One of the two “guests” had a musical instrument and played it as they performed, but not a single word was spoken. A world without words evoking more imagination and will to explore. When the “mysterious unknown as guests” appeared in front of them, children spontaneously began internal communication with this otherworldly existence, explored on their own and questioned, and took actions based on these questions and explorations. The “guests”, too, continued to dance as though they were guided by children’s such actions -the whole scene was created through mutual resonation.

 

 

最後にあけび組保育者 Tさんの感想を紹介します。

あけびの子どもたちは初見は畏れを強く感じていたようですが、徐々に「何者か」が醸し出す雰囲気に引き込まれるような様子や模倣して踊り始める姿があり、一つの物語のようでした。
何も話さない「来訪者たち」のニーズを探ろうと『何をしに来たのかな?』『豆が欲しいのかな?』『誰かに会いに来たのかな?』などと話していた事も、日頃の問い続けるスタイルが反映されているなと感じた場面でした。
来訪者たちが去った後、ある5歳児は『あの人たちもしかしたら、ぼくたちを鬼から守るために来たのかもしれない』と言っていました。守られた、ぼくたちの味方だった、という、肯定的なメッセージを受け取っていたようです。
この感想に出て来た5歳児は、当日前「鬼が来たらぼくがやっつけてやる!」と宣言していた子です。「ぼくたちを鬼から守るために来たのかも」という言葉の中に、「今日は節分。やっつけなければいけない鬼が来る」という彼の中に元々あった概念と、その瞬間に彼が経験していたことが、絶妙に交わり融合して新たに紡ぎ出された物語のような発言だと感じました。

 

Lastly, please allow me to share a comment by T, an Akebi staff.

Akebi children seemed to have fear at first however they were gradually drawn into their peculiar, otherworldly atmosphere and spontaneously began dancing, mimicking the “guests” (probably because they were genuinely fascinated). The whole scenery was just like one story told.
Moreover, the way children also began discussing the purpose of the visit by the “guests”  (“what have they come here for?” “Do they want beans?” “Are they here to see somebody?” ) clearly reflected “exploration method” we apply in child education everyday.
When the “guests” have left, one 5 year old said “perhaps they might have come to protect us from demons”. It seems that the way he saw the “guests” was rather positive (like a friend or a someone on our side).
This 5 year old is the same 5 year old who previously said he was ready to fight the demons. His such remark (“perhaps they might have come to protect us”) must have been the outcome of exquisite intersection of his initial idea of“setsubun is the day I fight the demons” and what he actually ended up experiencing this year.

 

 



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